Monday, March 08, 2010



1. Unicellular blue algae
- Chroococcus -> live in the water / pond is calm
- Gloeocapsa -> live on a rock or epiphytes on other plants

2. Unicellular blue algae colonize
- Polycistis
- Spirulina -> can be processed into health foods (food supplement)

3. Threadlike blue algae
- Oscillatoria
- Nostoc commune
- Anabaena azollae and anabaena cycadae bersimbiosis with Azolla pinnata and Cycas rumphii. Anabaena symbiosis with its azollae Azolla pinnata as an alternative to urea, because of this symbiosis can increase nitrogen levels in rice cultivation.

Algae are plants that do not have roots, stems and leaves of the truth, but already has that chlorophyll is autotrof. His body consists of a single cell (unicellular) and others that many cells (multi-cellular). The unicellular generally as being a multicellular Phytoplankton can live as Nekton, benthos or Perifiton.

Algae habitat is water or in wet areas, as Epiphyte or as Endofit.
Algae reproduce by vegetative and generative way.

1. CLOROPHYTA (green algae) Contain green pigment, the chlorophyll
- Chlamydomonas sp.
- Chlorella sp.
- Euglena sp. Volvox sp. being the transition between algae and protozoa

2. CHRYSOPHYTA (golden algae)
Carotene pigments have, in addition to the chlorophyll. The most common example is the Navicula sp. (Algae kresik = Diatomae), these algae contains the silicate grit. Soil containing algae is called Land of Diatoms, very well as a coating material on the dynamite, can also be used as an abrasive material, filters and others.

3. PHAEOPHYTA (algae, brown algae blonde =)
Fikosantin pigment has, in addition to the chlorophyll. All the members live in the sea.
- Turbinaria australis
- Sargassum siliquosum
- Fucus vesiculosus (a natural dye)
Some of these algae species produce acid alginates are useful for the textile and food industries as pigments.

4. RHODOPHYTA (red algae)
Fikoeritrin pigment has, in addition to the existence of chlorophyll.
- Eucheuma spinosum, is producer of gelatin.
- Gracillaria sp., Produce material for making cosmetics

Moss is true of terrestrial plants, although still likes damp places and wet. Mosses that live in water is rare to find, except peat moss (sphagnum sp)

In moss, roots that are not there, this plant melekata through Rhizoid (artificial roots), moss plants olehkaren aitu a transitional form between the plants was Talus (Talofita) with plants were Kormus (Kormofita).

Chlorophyll that the moss has autotrof nature.
Moss growing in various places, who lived in the leaves called epifil. If the forest trees, the forests found epifil so-called moss forest.

Roots and stems of the moss does not have transport vessels (xylem and Phloem).
In the moss plants are Gametangia (sexual organs) are:
a. Male genitalia called Anteridium producing Spermtozoid
b. female genitalia is a producing Arkegonium Ovum

If both gametangia contained in a single individual is married (Monoesius). If you separate the two individuals referred to settle two (Dioesius). Sperm movement towards the ovum berupakan Motion Kemotaksis, because of the chemical stimulation of mucus by egg dihasilkna.

Sporogonium is spore-producing bodies, with the section:
- Vaginula (feet)
- Seta (stalk)
- Apofisis (tip of seta widening)
- Box Spores: Kaliptra (hood) and Kolumela (network in a box spores that are not participating in forming spores). Moss spores are haploid.

Examples of moss species
a. Class HEPATICAE (liverworts):
Marchantia polymorpha>> shaped flat like a ribbon, were used for the treatment of hepatitis.
b. Class MUSCI (moss leaves):
- Sphagnum fimbriatum
- Sphagnum acutilfolium
- Sphagnum squarrosum
- Sphagnum ruppinense

Everything is called peat moss, and often sterilized and used those as a substitute for cotton.

This plant has really kormus form, so it was clear the roots, stems and leaves. There is live as saprofit and there As with epiphytes. Nail like it moist (higrofit), the growth started from the coast (sea spikes) until around the craters (crater nails).

Based on the resulting spores known plant species 3 nails, namely:
- Nail Homosfor or Isospor>> produces only one type of spores, such as wire nails (Lycopodium clavatum).
- Nail Heterospor>> produce two types of spores: microspores (male) and makrospora (female), such as nail rane (Selaginella wildenowii) and clover (Marsilea crenata).
- Nail transition>> produces spores that same shape and size (Isospora) but some males and some females (heterospora), for example Horsetail (Equisetum debile)

Plant roots form the root of the nail fibers. At the root of the nail, there is in the middle of xylem surrounded by Phloem vessels transport the file to form concentric.

Rarely grow upright stems above the ground, except at the nail pole (Alsopila sp. And Cyathea sp.). Batang is mostly stick root (Rhizoma). File type freight vessel stems with roots, namely the concentric type.

LEAF variety of nails
- Leaves little known Mikrofil
- Leaves the big ones called Makrofil and have had meat leaves (mesophyll)
- Special leaves for assimilation called Tropofil
- Specific leaf produces spores called Sporofil

- Sporangium is a spore box
- Sorus a gathering place for the box body spores
- Selpaut the Indusium is menlindungi young sorus -> characteristic spike

Breeding nail Metagenesis classified. In contrast to the moss, which we are daily called the plant a nail is his sporofit phase. Fern is in the earth has a heyday in the era Paileozoikum, especially in an age of carbon -> called era of nails. The remains can now be explored as coal.

Asplenium species
As plant decoration:
- Platycerium nidus (spike antlers)
- Asplenium nidus (bird's nest nails)
- Adiantum cuneatum (maidenhair ferns)
- Selaginella wildenowii (nail rane)

As a material producing drugs:
- Asipidium filix-mas
- Lycopodium clavatum

For vegetables:
- Marsilea crenata (clover)
- Salvinia natans (nail canoe = Salvinia)

As a green manure:
- Azolla pinnata>> bersimbiosis with anabaena azollae (gangang blue)

As pelindugn plants in the nursery:
- Gleichenia linearis

Is a single-celled animal phyla that can make sexual reproduction (generative) and asexual (vegetative). Habitat where life is wet or watery. If the environmental conditions where life is not menguntungkanmaka protozoa would form a thick and strong membrane called a cyst. Scientist who first mempelajariprotozoa is Anthony van Leeuwenhoek.

1 Rhizopoda (Sarcodina), tool motion of pseudopoda (pseudo feet)
• Amoeba proteus has two types of vacuoles and food vacuoles contractile vacuoles.
• Entamoeba histolityca causes amoebic dysentery (confused with dysentery basiler caused by Shigella dysentriae)
• Entamoeba gingivalis cause decomposition of food in the mouth inflammation of the gums (Gingivitis)
• Foraminifera sp. fossil can be used as evidence of oil earth. Soil containing fossil fotaminifera called globigerina land.
• radiolarians sp. soil deposits that contain animal used for abrasive materials.

2 Flagellate (Mastigophora), tool motion in the form of Nagel (feather whip). Divided into 2 groups, namely:
• Group phytonagellata
- Euglena (peralihah living between protozoa with algae)
- Volvax globator (peralihah between life with algae, protozoa)
- Noctiluca millaris (live at sea and can issue light when exposed to mechanical stimulation)
• Group Zooflagellata, for example:
- Trypanosoma gambiense & Trypanosoma rhodesiense. Causes sleeping sickness in Africa with a vector (carrier)
- tsetse fly (Glossina sp.) Trypanosoma gambiense Þ vector Glossina palpalis tsetse river Trypanosoma rhodeslense vector Glossina morsitans
- tsetse bush
- Trypanosoma cruzl Þ Chagas disease
- Trypanosoma evansi Þ surra disease, in cattle (cow).
- Kalanzar disease Leishmaniadonovani Þ
- Trichomonas vaginalis Þ milky disease

3 Ciliate (Ciliophora), tool motion of the cilia (hair shakes)
• caudatum Þ Paramaecium called animal slippers, which has two types of vacuoles and food vacuole contractile vacuole that functions to regulate the osmotic pressure equilibrium (osmoregulator).
Has two types of core and Makronukleus Þ Mikronukleus (reproductive essence). Way of reproduction, asexual divide Þ, Þ sexual conjugation.
• Balantidium coli causes diarrhea Þ.

4 Sporozoa,
is a protozoan that has no means of motion How to move these animals by changing the position of his body. By vegetative propagation (asexual) is also called a Skizogoni and generative (sexual) called Sporogoni.

Clan-related human health and Plasmodium Toxopinsma Þ.
Your options include:
- Plasmodiumfalciparum Þ Þ sporulation tropical malaria every day
- Plasmodium vivax malaria tertiana Þ Þ sporulation each day 3 (48 hours)
- Plasmodium malariae malaria knartana Þ Þ sporulation each day 4 (72 hours)
- Plasmodiumovale Þ ovale malaria

Plasmodium life cycle experience metagenesis occur in the human body (skizogoni Þ vegetative reproduction) and in the mosquito Anopheles sp. (sporogoni Þ generative reproduction).
complete as follows:
Þ Sign Sporozoit Body Inside Heart (Extra Eritrositer) Tropozoid Þ Þ Merozoit (eating erythrocytes Eritrositer Þ) Þ erythrocytes Break (event Þ sporulation) Gametosit Þ Þ Þ Zygot exploited Ookinet Mosquito Oosis Þ Þ Sporozeit.

Eradication of malaria can way:
Avoiding mosquito bites Anopheles sp.
Control the Anopheles mosquito populations with insecticides and larvasida Patient treatment with antimalarial regularly chloroquin Þ, Fansidar, etc.

Sponges are aquatic animals that live in the sea. Hidupnva always attached to the substrate (sesil) and can not freely moved.

The main characteristic Þ has iubang (Pori) a lot and formed a channel system. Water and food larutdidalamnya diarnbil by these animals go through the os, then entry into the body cavity. After food absorb excess water is expelled through the hole in Oskulum call.

There are cells with a special form called neck Koanosit or cell that functions to digestive makanan.Sel koanosit a nucleus, vacuoles and flagel. Since digestion takes place in the cell the intracellular digestion Þ.

Having Eksoskeleton (Outer Frame): consists of flexible fibers called Spongin and consists of duriyang called Spikula. Breeding generative way (married) this animal has a high regeneration power.

Calcarea Þ Sycon and Cluthrina
DEMOSPONGIA Þ Euspongila, Spongila (soft-bodied) people Þ used for equipment and other glass cleaners.

continue to next post : TYPE SYSTEM vessels OWNED BY AIR Sponges

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